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AAVALABS Glossary

Learn more about the carefully selected ingredients that we use in our products. Our glossary also covers other common terms that you may come across while reading about our supplements and the AAVALABS brand.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Acacia gum (gum arabic)

Acacia gum (aka gum arabic) is a plant-derived fiber taken from the sap of the acacia Senegal tree. As well as being an excellent source of water-soluble fiber, it is commonly used as a natural binding agent to hold ingredients together. As a plant-derived substance, acacia gum is suitable for vegans and is naturally gluten-free.

Acerola fruit extract

Acerola is a berry that originated in southern Mexico and the Caribbean. This natural fruit contains an astonishing amount of vitamin C (50-100 times that of orange) and has also shown to have high antioxidant capacity, thanks to the phytonutrients that it contains.

Algae oil

Algae oil is the premier source of vegan-friendly (and sustainable) omega-3 fatty acids. Many marine microalgae are rich in EPA and DHA and these natural algae are extracted and purified into an oil. Algae oil supplements have been found to be nutritionally equivalent to cooked salmon.

Amino acids

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins. The human body needs 20 different amino acids to function effectively. Nine of these are essential, meaning that they cannot be made by the human body and must come from food sources. Amino acids are most well-known for the important role they play in muscle repair, but these vital building blocks are also involved in energy production, nutrient absorption, and immune function.

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are molecules that fight against free radicals in the human body. Free radical damage is linked to multiple serious illnesses and diseases. Antioxidants can help neutralize free radicals and prevent cell damage. Antioxidant sources can be both natural (e.g., dark chocolate, pecans, blueberries) and artificial (e.g., butylated hydroxyanisole).

Ascorbic acid

Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant known more commonly as vitamin C.

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B

Bacillus coagulans

Bacillus coagulans is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bacillus coagulans is a specific strain of the Bacillus bacterium genus.

Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Waterhyssop) is a perennial herb that occurs naturally in India. For centuries Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine. It is traditionally taken for its nootropic effect and has been shown to enhance cognitive performance.

Beta carotene

Beta carotene is a red-orange pigment that is found naturally in many fruits, plants, and fungi. This pigment is responsible for the orange color of foods such as mangoes, pumpkins, carrots, and sweet potatoes. Beta Carotene is a natural source of vitamin A and helps to support normal iron metabolism, immune function and normal vision, as well as the maintenance of normal skin.

Bifidobacterium adolescentis

Bifidobacterium adolescentis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium adolescentis is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria, and research has shown its potential to strengthen gastrointestinal function.

Bifidobacterium animalis

Bifidobacterium animalis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium animalis is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria with beneficial health effects in numerous clinical studies within gastrointestinal health and immune function.

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium bifidum is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria.

Bifidobacterium breve

Bifidobacterium breve is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium breve is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria.

Bifidobacterium infantis

Bifidobacterium infantis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium infantis is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria, and research has shown it to benefit  gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal conditions.

Bifidobacterium lactis

Bifidobacterium lactis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium lactis is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria and is well-documented for treatment in the use of constipation.

Bifidobacterium longum

Bifidobacterium longum is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Bifidobacterium longum is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria, and research has shown it has the ability to stabilize gut microbiota and improve the intestinal environment.

Biotin

Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a member of the B-vitamin family. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it is not stored by the body and so needs to be absorbed regularly from food intake. Organ meats, yeast, egg yolks, and cheese are all rich sources of dietary biotin. Biotin is thought to have a wide range of benefits and is often taken to boost skin health and support nail and hair growth.

Bovine gelatine

Bovine gelatine is a protein-based gelling agent that is produced by collagen hydrolysis and extracted from animal tissue. Bovine gelatine is commonly used to make softgel supplement capsules.

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C

Caffeine

Most commonly found in tea, coffee, and cacao – caffeine is a natural central nervous system stimulant. It is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive drug and is usually taken to reduce fatigue and tiredness.

Caffeine anhydrous

A dehydrated form of caffeine, caffeine anhydrous is a concentrated, crystallized powder that is commonly added to supplements to improve alertness.

Calcium

Calcium is a mineral most well-known for the role it plays in healthy bones and teeth. Indeed, approximately 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bones. Still, calcium also plays an important role in other bodily functions – such as muscle contractions and heart/nerve function. If one does not intake sufficient calcium from food and/or supplements, the body will remove calcium from the bones.

Camu camu pulp extract

Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) is a South American berry fruit and, like acerola cherry, is an incredibly rich source of vitamin C. Extracts of camu camu pulp are often included in supplements to provide a natural source of vitamin C.

Caterpillar fungus extract

Caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis) is a species of fungus that grows on insects. It is classified as a medicinal mushroom. Caterpillar fungus may improve the body’s use of oxygen during exercise.

CFU

CFU is an abbreviation of Colony Forming Units. It is a unit used to quantify the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample or supplement.

Chlorella

Chlorella are single-celled freshwater algae. They are found natively in Japan and Taiwan. Chlorella has an incredibly rich nutrient profile and contains proteins, B-vitamins, as well as dietary fiber. Chlorella is suggested to detoxify the body.

Chlorogenic acids

Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of phenolic acids that are found in coffee. These acids have substantial biological activities and may be responsible for the beneficial effects of coffee.

Choline

Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal human health. Choline plays a role in supporting cell structure, fat transport and metabolism, DNA synthesis, and a healthy nervous system.

Coleus root dry extract

A traditional plant root used in ancient Indian medicine. It is traditionally indicated for the support of the circulatory and cardiovascular system.

Collagen

Collagen is the most plentiful protein in the human body and is present in bones, muscles, tendons, organs, and in the skin. It is rich in amino acids. Intake of collagen peptides has been shown to reduce skin wrinkles.

Curcumin

Known for its vibrant yellow color, curcumin has been used for centuries in Asian countries for its medicinal properties. It is the main polyphenol in turmeric and a potent flavonoid.

Curcuminoids

Curcuminoids are a family of active chemical compounds. The most important and well-studied of these compounds is curcumin.

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D

D-alpha tocopherol

A natural form of vitamin E that is commonly found in foods and supplements.

D-biotin

D-biotin is the naturally occurring, biologically active form of the B-vitamin biotin. It is the only form of biotin that has full vitamin activity and helps to contribute to normal hair, skin, and nails.

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid (DPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid. DHA is required for the maintenance of normal brain function in adults, and several studies have shown that DHA supplementation offers an apparent benefit in brain function.

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E

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin and polyphenol. It is abundant in green tea extract and has been shown across multiple studies to be useful for the maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health.

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is thought to be an effective treatment for supporting brain, vision, and heart health. The richest dietary source of EPA comes from oily fish or fish oil supplementation.

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F

Fatty acids

Fatty acids are the building blocks of fat in our bodies. According to a 2018 review, a diet characterized by higher intakes of foods high in n-3 fatty acids and/or lower intake of n-6 fatty acids was strongly associated with positive effects on the brain and cardiovascular system.

Folate (vitamin B9)

Folate is a water-soluble vitamin and a member of the B-vitamin family (B9). It is important for red blood cell formation and healthy cell function. It is abundant in leafy greens and is also common in supplement form. Folate deficiency anemia is a condition whereby a lack of folate causes abnormally large red blood cells that cannot function properly. Recent research has also shown that taking folate (folic acid) during early pregnancy lowers the risk of having a baby with certain birth defects.

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G

Garcinia cambogia

Garcinia cambogia is a tropical fruit native to Indonesia. Preliminary research suggests that garcinia extract could be useful as a weight loss aid, but is so far inconclusive.

Gluten

Gluten is a protein found in certain grains, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten acts as a glue, helping foods to maintain their shape. A significant number of people suffer from a serious autoimmune reaction to gluten (known as celiac disease), gluten intolerance, or wish to avoid gluten for the proposed health benefits.

GMO

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any plant, animal, or other organism whose genetic structure has been modified in a laboratory. This process of genetic engineering leads to the creation of organisms that otherwise do not appear in nature.

Green coffee extract

Green coffee beans are simply unroasted coffee beans. It is the roasting process that turns coffee beans brown, but this process also reduces the chlorogenic acid content of the beans.

Green tea extract

Made from dried green tea leaves, this extract contains caffeine and plant compounds that are rich in polyphenol compounds. The most well-known compound of green tea extract is EGCG, which has been shown to have a positive effect on weight loss and weight management.

Guarana

A Brazilian plant that is high in caffeine and often used as an additive in energy drinks. It has been demonstrated to provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone and is able to improve cognitive function and mood.

Gut flora

The gut flora is a complex cell system in the human digestive tract. Some species of gut microbes ferment dietary fiber; others synthesize vitamins. We also rely on our gut flora to resist harmful pathogens. Generally, a diverse bacterial makeup of the gut flora is considered to be healthy.

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H

Hesperidin extract (Citrus aurantium)

Better known as bitter orange, this extract has been shown to offer diverse health benefits and without unwanted effects at normal doses. Areas of therapeutic potential for bitter orange include antistress, supporting healthy weight management, and free-radical reducing activity. 

Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid is a key molecule in skin aging that has a unique capacity to retain water. As a supplement, it works by acting as both a cushion and lubricant in the joints and might affect the way the body responds to injury.

Hydrolyzed collagen

Hydrolyzed collagen is collagen that has been broken down into smaller, easy-to-absorb protein particles.

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I

Inositol

A water-soluble substance that is vitamin-like in its nature. Inositol is found in many plants and animals, as well as in the human heart and brain. While the body can produce some inositol from the carbohydrates that we eat, it is often sold in supplement form. Inositol has been shown to contribute to mental performance and concentration.

Inulin

Inulin is a type of prebiotic dietary fiber found naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Research has linked inulin to various health benefits, including weight control and the improvement of digestive health.

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L

Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus acidophilus to support healthy cardiovascular function and prevent diarrhea.

Lactobacillus amylovorus

Lactobacillus amylovorus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus amylovorus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus amylovorus to help support healthy weight management.

Lactobacillus brevis

Lactobacillus brevis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus brevis is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus brevis to support proper bowel function.

Lactobacillus bulgaricus

Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus bulgaricus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Along with other probiotics, it is thought to help normalize intestinal microbiota and potentially improve intestinal barrier function.

Lactobacillus casei

Lactobacillus casei is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus casei is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria.


Lactobacillus crispatus

Lactobacillus crispatus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus crispatus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria.

Lactobacillus fermentum

Lactobacillus fermentum is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus fermentum is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus fermentum to support cognitive health.

Lactobacillus gasseri

Lactobacillus gasseri is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus gasseri is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus gasseri to support healthy weight management.

Lactobacillus helveticus

Lactobacillus helveticus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus helveticus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus helveticus that may assist in the maintenance of healthy sleep patterns.


Lactobacillus johnsonii

Lactobacillus johnsonii is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus johnsonii is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is part of the healthy vaginal microbiota.

Lactobacillus lactis

Lactobacillus lactis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus lactis is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus lactis to support intestinal health.

Lactobacillus paracasei

Lactobacillus paracasei is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus paracasei is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus paracasei to support healthy immune function.


Lactobacillus plantarum

Lactobacillus plantarum is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus plantarum is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus plantarum to down-regulate the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lactobacillus reuteri

Lactobacillus reuteri is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus reuteri is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus reuteri to support a healthy gut and intestinal microbiome.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus rhamnosus to support healthy gut flora and reduce the incidence of diarrhea.

Lactobacillus sakei

Lactobacillus sakei is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus sakei is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown that Lactobacillus sakei might help people maintain a healthy body weight.

Lactobacillus salivarius

Lactobacillus salivarius is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactobacillus salivarius is a specific strain of the Lactobacillus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria. Research has shown Lactobacillus salivarius to exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens.

Lactococcus lactis

Lactococcus lactis is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Lactococcus lactis is a specific strain of the Lactococcus bacterium genus. It is a gram-positive bacteria.

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a species of lactic acid bacteria commonly associated with the process of fermentation. It is typically found on the skin of fleshy fruits and vegetables.

L-Arginine

An amino acid that is used by the body in protein synthesis, tissue repairing, and immune cell function. It acts as a vasodilator and studies have shown that over the long-term, L-arginine reduces supports a healthy cardiovascular system

L-Carnitine

A compound similar to an amino acid that supports energy metabolism and helps the body turn fat into energy. L-Carnitine has also been shown to be useful in the management of liver conditions and wider metabolic health.

Lyc-O-Beta

A natural beta-carotene color, in powder form, that instantly dissolves when mixed with cold water.

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M

Maca (Lepidium meyenii)

A Peruvian plant that has been cultivated as a vegetable crop for centuries and used around the world for its therapeutic potential. Experimental scientific evidence has shown maca to have nutritional and energizing properties. It acts on sexual dysfunctions and aids in the treatment of osteoporosis, memory, and learning.

Magnesium

Magnesium is an important mineral for human function, playing a role in more than 300 different enzyme reactions. Magnesium is present in several foods, but supplementing magnesium has various demonstrated health benefits, including boosting exercise performance and supporting muscle health and function. Magnesium is a common dietary supplement that comes in several forms.

Magnesium bisglycinate

The magnesium salt of glycine. It is highly bioavailable and generally well tolerated.

Magnesium citrate

A form of magnesium that is bound together with citric acid. A common magnesium formulation and thought to be one of the most bioavailable forms.

Magnesium malate

A form of magnesium that includes malic acid. It is known to be gentle on the digestive system and is well absorbed by the digestive tract.

Magnesium oxide

A salt that combines magnesium and oxygen. Frequently used for the short-term relief of adverse digestive symptoms, including constipation, indigestion, and heartburn.

Magnesium taurate

This form of magnesium contains taurine, an amino acid.

Microbiome

The human microbiome is composed of communities of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Our microbiomes develop immunity against harmful pathogens, host nutrition and energy metabolism, and synthesize vitamins and fat storage. Our microbiomes are essential organs, which we cannot function without. The human microbiome is highly dynamic and changes in response to environmental factors – most notably diet and medications (such as antibiotics).

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N

NRV

NRV is an abbreviation of ‘Nutrient Reference Value.’ The NRV is an EU guidance level on the daily amount of vitamin or mineral that the average healthy person needs to prevent deficiency.

Nu-FLOW™

Nu-Flow™ delivery technology is used to maximize nutrient absorption, helping you digest every morsel of goodness and put it to work. It is a rice flour natural excipient.

Nu-MAG™

Nu-MAG is a blend of four ingredients (rice extract, rice hulls, gum arabic, and sunflower oil) that is used as an alternative to synthetic ingredients in supplements without compromising on the quality or efficacy of product formulations.

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O

Olive leaf

Olive leaf is derived from the olive plant. The free-radical reducing actives contained within olive leaf are primarily polyphenols. One in particular, Oleuropein, is particularly powerful and has been shown to support normal immune health.

Omega-3

Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that play an important role in human physiology. There are three main types: DHA, EPA, and ALA – each having its distinct uses and benefits. Omega-3s are common dietary supplements and used to support health health, brain health, and healthy vision.

Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is the state of imbalance between harmful free radicals and protective polyphenols in the body, where free radicals overwhelm the body’s ability to regulate them. A balance between the two is necessary for proper physiological function.

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P

Pediococcus acidilactici

Pediococcus acidilactici is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Pediococcus acidilactici is a specific strain of the Pediococcus bacterium genus. It is thought to be useful in support digestive health, though human trials are currently limited. 

Phytonutrients

Phytonutrients are natural plant compounds that provide significant and varied health benefits. Many phytonutrients are responsible for giving plants their pigment, so the color of a fruit or vegetable can be an indicator of the phytonutrients that they contain. The different classes of phytonutrients include Betalains, Chlorophyll, Indoles, Organosulfides, Phenols, Terpenes, Triterpenes.

Piperine

Piperine is the alkaloid responsible for the smell and flavor of black pepper (Piper nigrum). Notably, piperine represents diverse biological activities, and is the active ingredient in black pepper which supports general health and well being . Piperine can also improve the bioavailability of other substances, such as turmeric.

Prebiotics

Prebiotics are dietary fibers that are indigestible for humans and a food source for the beneficial bacteria in the gut. As such, prebiotics can be used (indirectly) to support a variety of human immune functions.

Probiotics

Live bacteria found in foods and supplements that are beneficial for the gut microbiome and capable of a range of health benefits.

Polyphenols

Polyphenols are micronutrients that occur naturally in plant foods and are included in many supplements. There are over 8000 types of polyphenol, and various polyphenols are thought to have health boosting properties.

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R

Rose hips fruit extract (Rosa canina)

Rose hip is an accessory fruit of the rose plant. Its extract contains many ingredients, which vary in composition based on the season. Rose hips fruit extract has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years and has been shown to hold anti-aging properties.

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S

Saccharomyces boulardii

Although a probiotic, Saccharomyces Boulardii is actually a yeast, not a bacterium. It’s extremely hardy and has been shown to be exhibit a protective effect on digestive health and strengthen immune response, especially when it comes to treating diarrhea.

Selenium`

Selenium is an essential trace mineral that appears naturally (in low levels) in water and some foods. Selenium has notable health-boosting properties, and some health issues are associated with low selenium levels. Importantly, the human body does not produce selenium. Brazil nuts and walnuts are a rich dietary source.

Selenomethionine

Selenomethionine is a natural form of selenium. It is chemically identical to the form that selenium takes within the body and is utilized as an amino acid.

Sodium hyaluronate

A salt-form derivative of hyaluronic acid—a fluid that surrounds the joints as well as assisting in skin hydration.

Spirulina

Thought to be one of Earth’s oldest life forms, Spirulina is a blue-green algae superfood. It has been used for centuries for its therapeutic benefit and has been shown to exhibit an impressive multivitamin and mineral profile.

Streptococcus thermophilus

Streptococcus thermophilus is a bacterial species. It is generally considered to be a probiotic bacteria (i.e., a ‘good’ bacteria) and has been demonstrated to have beneficial properties for gut flora. Streptococcus thermophilus is a specific strain of the Streptococcus bacterium genus.

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T

Tocopherols

A group of organic chemical compounds that together make up the different forms of vitamin E. In nature, there are eight different forms of vitamin E (including four tocopherols). Supplements that contain ‘mixed tocopherols’ contain several different types of vitamin E.

Turmeric

Turmeric is a plant in the ginger family, used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine (traditional Indian medicine). It is well known for its health boosting properties. The main active compound in turmeric is curcumin. As well as being used for its therapeutic benefit, turmeric root is also used as a cooking spice, and as a coloring dye—owing to its strong golden yellow color.

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V

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a nutritional compound that is naturally found in many foods, such as cheese, eggs, milk, and oily fish. There are two main forms of vitamin A in the human diet—preformed vitamin A (retinol, retinyl) and provitamin A carotenoids (like beta carotene). Vitamin A is key for a healthy immune system, normal cell growth, reproduction, and good vision. Vitamin A deficiency is relatively common, especially in developing countries.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family. It contributes to a healthy nervous system and works in synergy with vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. There are many neurological conditions linked to a deficiency in B1.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family and helps keep both nerve and blood cells healthy. Animal products (meat and dairy) are the primary dietary sources of vitamin B12. Following, vitamin B12 is the most common vitamin deficiency amongst those who follow vegan diets. There are no upper limits for B12 intake owing to the fact that no toxic effects have been identified.


Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family. It is an essential component of two major coenzymes: flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. As a dietary supplement, it is most notable for its role in reducing migraine headaches.


Vitamin B3 (niacin)

Vitamin B3 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family. Like other B-vitamins, it aids enzymes in the body to convert food into energy. There are two main chemical forms: nicotinic acid and niacinamide.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family. It regulates epidermal barrier function and helps the body to convert the carbohydrates that you eat into glucose for energy. While vitamin B5 deficiency is rare, there is no known upper bound limit for its use, and research shows it helps with some forms of acne.


Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble member of the B-vitamin family. It performs a wide variety of functions in the body (over 100 enzyme reactions), but its primary utility is protein metabolism.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that contributes to normal immune function, supports normal collagen formation, and reduces tiredness and fatigue. Vitamin C is a potent free radical fighter. However, this essential micronutrient cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained from the diet. It can be found in many fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables (like broccoli and cauliflower).

Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)

Vitamin D (as known as cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and hormone. It is necessary for mineral regulation within the body and plays an important role in maintaining healthy bones, muscle, and immune function. Vitamin D is naturally produced by the skin after direct sunlight exposure, although many people do not get enough of it.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble essential nutrient. Technically, it is a group of eight compounds (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols). The main role of vitamin E is to function as an phytonutrient; it helps protect against free radical cell damage and oxidative stress.

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Z

Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element and essential nutrient, which means it cannot be produced or stored by the body. It is naturally present in some foods and is also commonly used as a dietary supplement. Zinc has been shown to contribute to the normal function of the immune system and nervous system, as well as contributing to normal cognitive function.

Zinc citrate

A form of zinc. It is well-absorbed by the body and has a less bitter taste than several other forms of zinc.

Zinc monomethionine

A combination of zinc and the amino acid methionine. As methionine is the human body’s most readily absorbed amino acid, it is thought to be easily absorbed.

Zinc picolinate

A form of zinc. Research suggests that the body may absorb this form better than several other forms.

Zinc bisglycinate

A form of zinc that is well-tolerated and well-absorbed. As zinc bisglycinate is bound to glycine, it is absorbed intact. This means that it does not have to compete with other minerals for absorption in the intestinal tract.

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